National Museum Of Mongolia
The National Museum of Mongolia is a cultural, scientific, and educational organization that presents Mongolian history and culture from the dawn of humanity to the present day. A significant responsibility for preserving Mongolian cultural heritage, therefore, lies with the museum. Today the museum has 50 employees. The museum has been implemented several different projects related to museum research work in cooperation with foreign and domestic museums as well as scientific organizations. The Museum is supported through admission fees and government funding from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The origins of the National Museum of Mongolia date back to 1924 when the first collections were begun for a national museum, whose building no longer stands.
The present building of the National Museum of Mongolia was built in 1971 when it was erected as the Museum of Revolution. At that time all collections of ethnography, prehistory, middle history, natural history and paleontology were housed in the building of the Central Museum, which was built in 1956. In 1991, the ethnography, prehistory and medieval history collections of the Central Museum were combined with the 20th-century history materials at the Museum of Revolution to create the collections of the National Museum of Mongolian History, and the Museum of Revolution building name was changed accordingly.
The Museums’s collections contain about 60,000 historical, archeological, and ethnographical artifacts from prehistory all the way to contemporary Mongolia and only 10 percent of selected important items displayed in 9 exhibition halls, which are arranged according to historical periods and topics.
Hall 1: Prehistory of Mongolia
This hall display stone tools and objects relating to ritual or religious ceremonies, used by the prehistoric people inhabiting the area of modern-day Mongolia from ca. 800,000 BC until the Bronze and early Iron ages (ca. 3,000-300)
Hall 2: Ancient States
The archaeological artifacts of this hall relate to the history and the culture of the political entities that were established from the 3rd century BC to 12 century AD onwards. The first powerful empire was established by Hunnu (3rd century BC – 1st century AD). After the Hunnu Empire, there were several other nomadic tribes in quick succession. Furthermore, you will see collections of Turkic, Uighur and Kidan States.
Hall 3: Traditional Clothing and Jewelry
On display here are the costumes of Mongolia’s ethnic groups together with state ceremonial attire, seasonal dress, jewelry and accessories. Mongolia has more than 20 ethnic groups originating from 2 nationalities which are Mongolian and Turkish. Most of the displayed items date from the 10th – early of the 20th century.
Hall 4: The Mongolian Empire
This hall is divided into two periods: the earlier Mongolian state and the Mongolian Empire. In the next section, exhibits relating to the time of Chinggis Khaan and his successors, which include a state banner and historical military equipment. Some artifacts were excavated from the ruin of the Kharkhorum city.
Hall 5: Mongolian Traditional Culture
This hall regards aspects of traditional Mongolian culture that are tied in with the nomadic lifestyle. Discussed here and illustrated are items of spiritual importance, manuscripts and scriptures and their production, musical instruments, games and toys, and the National festival.
Hall 6: Mongolian Traditional Life
Mongolians have been living as pastoral nomads for many centuries. This hall represents the particularities of the nomadic lifestyle by displays such as fully furnished ger, tools for cattle-breeding, hunting and agriculture.
Hall 7: 17th – early 20th centuries Mongolia
For about 200 years, from the 17th to the beginning of the 20th century, Mongolia was a dominion of Manchu rule. Seals, coins, instruments of torture and other historical materials document this period.
The beginning of the 20th century saw Mongolia struggling for her independence from Manchu rule, which resulted in independence in 1911. The consequent theocratic monarchy headed by the Bogd Khaan lasted until 1924. Exhibits in this hall describe the military and political struggle for Mongolia’s self-determination as well as ensuring social and economic changes in the country.
Hall 8: Socialist Mongolia /1921-1990/
With the Revolution of 1921, Mongolia became a country that was driven by socialist ideology. Mongolia’s socialist period lasted until 1989. The political direction taken resulted in major changes in Mongolia’s political system, society, economy and culture. These changes, negative as well as positive, are explored through historical photographs and exhibits.
Hall 9: Democratic Mongolia /1990-present/
In 1990 Mongolia saw a peaceful revolution that ushered in democratic reforms and transformed Mongolia into a democratic state with a democratic constitution, multiparty system and Parliament. Mongolia turned away from the Socialist economic system in favor of a market economy. Since then Mongolian’s enjoy once more the right to private property. Foreign relations were expanded and Mongolia’s position in the international arena strengthened. Since embracing democracy pluralism has become firmly established and Mongolian traditional culture has been revived.